Friday, May 22, 2020

Supply, Demand, and Government in the Markets - 803 Words

Module 1_Assignment 3 Assignment 3: Supply, Demand, Government in the Markets 1. Using Microsoft Excel, draw a graph illustrating the supply and demand in this market. 2. What is the equilibrium Price and Quantity in the market? This is where the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied are equal. The corresponding price is the equilibrium price and the quantity is the equilibrium quantity. *Let us take the first line of data from the Spreadsheet as an example: Price- $200 Quantity Demanded- 1000 Quantity Supplied- 2200 Here there is an excess supply amount, so there are more computers than that are actually wanted. At this point, the sellers would recognize there are fewer buyers for their product at the current set†¦show more content†¦4. Disregard the new tax from number three. Now assume the government imposes a price ceiling of $100 in this market, as the result of protest of price gouging by sellers. What would happen to the price and quantity in this market? A price ceiling is a government-levied maximum rate for a product or good. When a price ceiling inflicted by the government is more than retail equilibrium price, the price ceiling has no effect on the market or economy. This is because it does not obstruct supply, nor does it boost the demand. A different effect transpires if the government imposes a price ceiling below the market’s equilibrium rate. The suppliers will no longer be capable of charging the price that the market mandates, but they are required to meet the maximum price determined by the government’s price ceiling. When the demand rises beyond the capability to supply, shortages ensue. This leads to rationing of the product, causing some consumers to experience longer lines to obtain the product. In a worse case, there would be no products available for the consumer to buy. 5. Assume that the manufacturers of this product lobby the government’s lawmakers, in terms of this product being essential for college students but they are considering halting production due to the lack of profits. The lawmaker’s agree and now set a price floor at $150. What would happen in this market? A price floor keeps rates from dropping too low, whichShow MoreRelatedAssignment 3: Supply, Demand, Government in the Markets1517 Words   |  7 PagesStudy Aide and TIPS for Module 1-Written Assignment 3 Rubric for grading: M1-Assignment  3 Grading Criteria | Maximum Points | Points Earned | Correctly constructed the supply and demand graph. It is recommended that you use the EXCEL study aide I posted to do this. | 12 | 12 | Answered questions 2-5 correctly, 15 points each. | 60 | 60 | Answered question 6 correctly. | 8 | 8 | Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representationRead MoreBumper Harvest On The Cards1381 Words   |  6 Pagesdetermined by its demand and supply. Market is composed of two parties that are buyers and sellers. Thus both demand and supply curves are important for determining the price of a commodity. †¢ Equilibrium price: The price at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied is called equilibrium price. †¢ Total demand: Here demand doesn’t mean the amount of commodity which people need rather effective demand that is the amount which people are willing to buy at various prices. †¢ Total supply: it means theRead MoreSupply And Demand Of Gasoline1118 Words   |  5 PagesSupply and demand is best describes as the varying of prices of a specific service, product or commodity and the desirability for consumers. In theory, the supply and demand model works best for markets that are normally in perfect competition. Now in order for this desired market to work, there has to be a numerous amount of sellers and a numerous amount of buyers that have no real or major impact on the pricing of goods and services. In the follow essay, we will receive a better understand onRead MoreEconomics and Growth Essays934 Words   |  4 PagesThe demand curve is likely to change upwards or rise as a result of changes in a number of factors. One, if there is a move up in the price of an alternative commodity, or decrease in price of the given commodity’s accompaniment. Two, if there is a rise in buyers’ income. Three, if the taste as well as preferencs of the c onsumers shifts in regard to the particular product or service under consideration. Four, when there is a decrease in the cost of borrowing. And finally, if there is an overall increaseRead MoreMarket Is An Actual Or Nominal Place That Forces Of Demand916 Words   |  4 PagesMarket is an actual or nominal place that forces of demand and supply operate (Challet, 1997), under this situation, buyers and sellers interact directly or through intermediaries to trade goods and services. Market including mechanisms or means for determining price of the traded item and available goods and services (cox, ibid.). Communicating the full price information. Facilitating deals and transactions, and effecting distribution. The market for particular items is made up of potential customersRead MoreEssay on cars in china743 Words   |  3 PagesDue to a strong domestic demand for cars in China, car manufacturers are expected to sell 13 million cars this year. China is expected to overtake United St ates as the world’s No.1 car market next year. As the car export market is still being affected by the global economic downturn, China carmakers have been focusing on the Mainland China market which is more attractive. The expected growth is more than 50% and this trend will continue next year as per some forecast. The stimulus package, providedRead MoreReview Of James Bovard For The Wall Street Journal1279 Words   |  6 PagesAn article written in May 2016 by James Bovard for the Wall Street Journal details the direct effects and potential related problems created when the government chooses to provide subsidies to the producers of a particular product (Bovard, 2016). The effects of the subsidies, although positive for those receiving the subsidy, can have far reaching effects on the economies and cultures of other nations. This paper will use the concepts and textbook (Schiller, 2016) from BUSB230 to examine the pointsRead MoreThe Relationship Between The Price Elasticity Of Demand1633 Words   |  7 PagesThe Relationship between the price elasticity of demand and total revenue and Impacts of various forms of elasticities on business decisions and strategies to maximize profit. Price elasticity of demand enables business organizations to predict how their total revenue will be effected in the event they change the prices of their products. When a given good has inelastic price elasticity of demand i.e. Ed 1, then the percentage change in the quantity demanded is greater that the change in priceRead MoreMarket Intervention1537 Words   |  7 PagesA  market is on  supply and demand with little or no government control.  A completely free market is an idealized form of a market economy where buyers and sells are allowed to transact freely based on a  mutual agreement on price without  state intervention. However, when prices are too high, low or start to fluctuate, governments take the view that markets are best suited to allocating scarce resources and allow the forces of supply and demand to set prices. A market will naturally settle intoRead MoreIncrease In Demand Advantages And Disadvantages1457 Words   |  6 Pages Due to Hurricane Irma, Florida’s production possibility frontier curve will shift inwards due to the amount of resources that has been destroyed hence there is a reduction in resources as shown in Figure1.0. One of the main affected markets due to this natural disaster is energy (electricity). â€Å"The state’s largest electric utility company, Florida Power and Light, warned that as many as 9 million residents could be affected by power outages†. These power outages could last weeks which

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Exchange Of Religion And Ideas - 1908 Words

The exchange of religion and ideas has been a common theme within the works that have been read. Many of the religious people studied mix their existing views of the world, which are often described as traditional â€Å"African† beliefs, with a mixture of the cosmology of Christianity, Islam, and other popularized, organized religion originating from across the world. Cosmological views held by different groups of people tend to vary, clash and change the way people go about their daily life. Paying respect to your ancestors is a common practice in Africa, including the Harare and Chitungwiza area. In both places, Masowe apostolics have taken many people by faith, and dictate a large part of their daily lives. These apostolics also firmly believe that the practice of â€Å"communicating† with your ancestors is a form of veneration, which goes against their Christian beliefs. The apostolics call for the cessation of this practice, however, Engelke speaks with some of the locals that carry out this practice who refuse. He describes: â€Å"Most apostolics would argue that holding rituals to communicate with one’s ancestors—as many Shona-speaking people do—amounts to the worship of false gods. You should not pray to your ancestors; pray only to God. As with several apostolic interpretations of â€Å"traditional† religious practice, this one is rejected by the people it is meant to describe... For many Shona-speaking people, as I have noted, ancestors are an integral part of social relationships,Show MoreRelatedThe Impact Of The Columbian Exchange On The New World1051 Words   |  5 Pagesthe discovery of the New World, a new era opened that would come to be known as the Columbian Exchange. With the transfer of plants, animals, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the Americas, good came from the Columbian Exchange which became a possibility after Christopher Columbus set sail in 1492, giving him full credit for this duration. The plants associated with the Columbian Exchange affected the Old and New Worlds by providing success in agriculture as well as technological advancementsRead MoreThe Silk Road And Its Effect On Every Aspect Of People s Lives1615 Words   |  7 Pagesas well as religion, communication, and idea. The Chinese kept the process of creating the silk to themselves, using it to their own advantage in the trade world. The long process and a final product of a strong, soft, and smooth fabric made silk so valuable. Silk, although the most traded, was only one of a wide range of goods imported between Eastern and Western civilizations. Its importance lies not only in the traded merchandise and commodities but also in its development of new ideas, spread ofRead MoreFactors Affecting Cultural Exchange Through Civilizations during 1000 and 1400 A.D.1282 Words   |  6 PagesThrough analyzing the five given documents, factors affecting cultural exchange through civilizations during 1000 and 1400 A.D. are noticeably those which result in the bringing of new ideas to a different area, such as missionary work, commerce, war, and travels. As new religions sprouted throughout Europe on other expansive areas, missionaries were sent out to foreign lands. Document 1 comes from the viewpoint of a Roman Catholic missionary attempting to spread his faith by presenting a letterRead MoreReligion As A Foundation Of Morality Essay910 Words   |  4 Pagesof years, religion has been part of nearly all cultures. Starting as a rather barbaric force, religion swiftly diffused into nearly every culture across the globe. Almost every culture has adopted, forcefully at times, some form of religion. It is asserted that before religion, we were nothing short of barbaric savages with no sense of right or wrong; it is said that religion saved us from an imminent self-destruction from our unethical ideas. Some will even assert that we need religion as a foundationRead MoreAncient And Medieval World Of Eurasia1678 Words   |  7 Pagesbegan a cultural exchange between the east and west through the diffusion of goods, technology, medicine, and religion. The two most vital networks of trade in the ancient and medieval world of Eurasia were the Spice Routes and the Silk Road. The Spice routes were a network of sea routes running from the Greco-Roman world, through North Africa, to the subcontinent of India, and eventually to China and Southeast Asia. The commerce of this maritime route was defined by the exchange of various spicesRead MoreAnalysis Of Emile Durkheim s Theories On Sociology And Psychology1114 Words   |  5 PagesZenawit Nerae Dr. Jennifer Patico Anth 4020 October 7, 2015 Midterm A Functionalism is simply defined as the idea that the purpose of everything we do is to support our society or ourselves. Many Anthropologists and sociologists are functionalists but for this essay I’ll be focusing more on two of the most famous people who support this idea; Bronislaw Malinowski and Émile Durkheim. The two share differences and similarities in the approaches they take depending on the groups they studied. DurkheimRead MoreByzantine Empire vs China1272 Words   |  6 Pagesamong the two. The Byzantine and Chines Empire were similar in economic aspects as both were huge centers of trade and promoted new technologies such as banking for the sake of good trade. These two empires were different regarding changes in their religion as the Chinese Empire became a cosmopolitan society letting Buddhism penetrate their empire and the Byzantines continued through the thread of Christianity. Furthermore, these empires differed when looking the way of government each society implementedRead MoreThe Impact On The Industrial Revolution1114 Words   |  5 Pagestrade things in exchange for things. Next, in Afroeurasia, the Silk Road was a major trade route that stretched from southwest Asia to Turkmenistan. Foods, wine, riches, spices, medicine and ideas were traded on this trade route. Since the Silk Road was a trade route, all aspects of PERSIA apply to this. Political views, economical costs, religious ideas, different people of different social classes used this route, intellectual ideas were exchanged along with pottery, paintings, ideas, etc. which fallsRead MoreThe Development Of Exploration And The Industrial Revolution1168 Words   |  5 Pagesknown as the Moorish Crusades. After the Moorish Crusades, schools for exploration began to open in Europe. When the schools were created, more and more people became interested in traveling to other countries to expand their own economy, spread religion, and to win glory (Beck, Crowston, Davila, Ebrey, McKay and Wiesner- Hanks 461, 462). Explorers such as Columbus and Magellan revolutionized Europe. Columbus’s desire to spread Christianity to new lands causes him to discover a route from EuropeRead More British Identity and Literature Essay1312 Words   |  6 Pagesnot a simple concept and is complicated by the existence of many British colonies all over the world. The colonized people of the British colonies also have claims on Britishness. So what determines if an individual is British or not? Is it ones religion? Is it the way one speaks? Is it just the difference of skin color? Is it ones appearance and dress? Is it based on citizenship? Is it ones knowledge of social norms of England? The colonized people of British colonies defied many of those above

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Effects Of Mercury On The Enviroment Free Essays

LA Gear and other shoe companies have been using mercury to make the switch active in their shoe that light up when a person walks. The shoes should return to the company after the user is done with the to be recycled. Since LA never advertises this, people just thrown them away like any other pair of old shoes. We will write a custom essay sample on Effects Of Mercury On The Enviroment or any similar topic only for you Order Now Eventually the shoes end up in a land fill and the mercury can leak out into the environment. Mercury is a highly toxic substance and is the cause of the Minamata Disease in the 1950’s. On the top 20 toxic chemical list, mercury rates 3rd. Mercury bioaccumulates in the body and has difficulty eliminating it. It may reach dangerous levels over time and causes sever damage to the central nervous system. Mercury’s Effect on the Environment and People Mercury is one of the biggest environmental problems that exist because it is hard to get of once in the environment. In the past, mercury was used to make things like paper, put in paint and thermometers, and as an agricultural pesticide. The Minamata Disease is a good example of what could happen if mercury enters into the environment. In the mid 1950’s, more than 100 Japanese were poisoned by fish that contained methyl mercury. The mercury came from industrial waste that had been dumped into the bay where the fish were caught. The mercury bioaccumulated up the food chain. The cats the were eating the fish showed the symptoms first. They began to act very strange; running into walls and acting like they were â€Å"in a trance. † The people in the village developed mental retardation, insanity, and birth defects from eating the poisoned fish. Fifty people died and 150 people suffered from these disorders. Another example of mercury’s effect on people and the environment comes from the saying â€Å"mad as a hatter. † In the 1800’s, hats were made with mercury to stiffened the brim. The hatters that made the hats worked with mercury all the time. The mercury was absorbed into their skin and caused them to develop neurological and physiological disorders. People just assumed they were going crazy. From then on, when someone thought another was going out of their mind they would say they were â€Å"mad as a hatter. † How to cite Effects Of Mercury On The Enviroment, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Profit Determination free essay sample

Depreciation Schedule Units of production Assume cost $105 000 residual $ 5 000 estimated useful of 24 000 units Units Used 6 000 6 000 4 000 4 000 4 000 Depn. Charge 25 000 25 000 16 667 16 667 *16 666 Accum. Depn. 25 000 50 000 66 667 83 334 100 000 Carrying Amount 105 000 80 000 55 000 38 333 21 666 5 000 Date Asset Cost 1/7/XO 105 000 30/6/X1 30/6/X2 30/6/X3 30/6/X4 30/6/X5 * rounded down by $1 16 Accounting for Depreciation †¢ Standard entry to record depreciation charge for the period †¢ End of period adjustment , assuming straight line for y. e. 0/6/X1 June 30 Depreciation Expense 20 000 Accumulated Depreciation 20 000 to record depreciation expense for the period 17 Pre-collected/Unearned Revenue †¢ Amounts received before service is performed LIABILITY ACCOUNT Unearned Revenue Adjusting entry Debit Cash receipt REVENUE ACCOUNT Adjusting entry Credit revenue earned during the current period 18 6 Balance-day adjustment for precollected revenue †¢ Origin al entry – Cash – GST Collections – Unearned Revenue Dr Cr Cr 11 000 1 000 10 000 †¢ Balance day adjustment for revenue earned – Unearned Revenue – Revenue Dr Cr 5 000 5 000 19 Accrued/Unrecorded Expenses †¢ Expenses consumed but not yet paid for ASSET ACCOUNT Expense Payable Adjusting entry Credit EXPENSE ACCOUNT Adjusting entry Debit expenses incurred 20 Balance day adjustment for accrued expenses †¢ Balance Day – Wages Expense – Wages Payable Dr 6 000 Cr 6 000 †¢ Next year when wages of $15 000 are paid (no GST on wages) – Wages Payable – Wages Expense – Cash Dr Dr Cr 6 000 9 000 15 000 21 7 Accrued/Unrecorded Revenue †¢ Amounts due for services performed but not yet received ASSET ACCOUNT Accounts receivable Adjusting entry Debit REVENUE ACCOUNT Adjusting entry Credit evenue earned but not yet received 22 Balance day adjustment for accrued revenue †¢ Balance day adjustment for services performed but not yet received in cash – Fees Receivable Dr Service Fees Revenue Cr 30 000 30 000 †¢ When revenue is received in new year – Cash – GST Collections – Fees Receivabl e Dr Cr Cr 33 000 3 000 30 000 23 Disposal of Non-current Assets †¢ Remember how inventory is recorded when sold (perpetual inventory system) (Ignore GST) – Receivables/Cash – Sales – Cost of Sales – Inventory Dr Cr Dr Cr 5 000 5 000 3 200 3 200 24 8 Disposal of Non-current Assets †¢ When non-current assets are sold, we used to simply follow the inventory entries: – Receivables/Cash – Proceeds on Sale Dr Cr 5 000 5 000 – Carrying Amt of Asset Sold Dr 3 200 – Accumulated Depreciation Dr 6 800 – Non-current Asset Cr 10 000 25 Disposal of Non-Current Assets †¢ For the sale of non-current assets – Proceeds recorded at the ‘gross amount received’ (revenue) – Carrying amount of asset sold represents expense for the period – The difference between proceeds and carrying amount represents the gain or loss on sale 26 Disposal using a Sale of Assets Account, (which makes life more complex) Sale of non-current assets Date Cash at Bank Sale of Asset to record gross proceeds from sale Sale of Asset Accumulated Depreciation Non-current Asset to transfer the expense (carrying amount of the asset sold) 500 500 gain of $400 Date 100 900 1 000 27 9 Using a Sale of Asset account †¢ We need a third entry under this approach: (ignoring GST) – Sale of Asset Dr 400 – Gain on Sale of Asset Cr 400 28 Disposal of Non-Current Assets †¢ Sale of non-current assets – eg, carrying value more than the selling price Date Cash at Bank Proceeds on Sale of Asset to record gross proceeds from sale 50 50 loss of $50 Date Carrying Amount of Asset Sold 100 Accumulated Depreciation 900 Non-current Asset 1 000 to recognise as expense the carrying amount of the asset sold 29 Closing entries in the Accounting Cycle 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Profit Determination or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Recognise record transactions Source documents 2. Journalise transactions General journal 3. Post to ledger accounts General ledger 4. Prepare unadjusted trial balance of GL Trial balance (unadjusted) 30 Continued next slide 10 The Complete Accounting Cycle 5. Determine adjusting entries and/or journalise General journal 6. Post adjusting entries to general ledger General ledger (accounts adjusted) 7. Prepare adjusted trial balance of GL (adjusted) Trial balance (adjusted) 8. Journalise closing entries General journal 31 Closing Temporary Accounts †¢ Revenue expense accounts must be closed at the end of each period to determine profit/loss for the period †¢ They begin and end each accounting period with a zero balance †¢ Profit loss summary account used to facilitate closing process determination of profit 32 FLOWCHART of CLOSING PROCESS (CLOSE REVENUE ACCOUNT) REVENUE 28 500 12 000 7 500 9 000 (CLOSE EXPENSE ACCOUNTS) PL SUMMARY 4 450 24 050 28 500 24 050 SALARY EXP 1 500 1 800 3 300 (CLOSE P L SUMMARY) CAPITAL ACCOUNT 2 500 24 050 RENT EXP 800 800 DRAWINGS SUPPLIES EXP 350 350 2 500 2 500 33 (CLOSE DRAWINGS ACCOUNT) 11 The Closing Process †¢ Revenue accounts closed to P L summary †¢ debit revenue †¢ credit P L summary †¢ Expense accounts closed to P L summary †¢ debit P L summary †¢ credit expense 34 The Closing Process Profit Loss summary balances to determine profit/loss then closed to capital †¢ debit P L summary (assuming a profit) †¢ credit Capital account †¢ Drawings closed to capital †¢ debit Capital account †¢ credit Drawings account 35 After the Closing Process †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ All revenue accounts have nil balances All expense accounts have nil balances The drawings account has a nil balance The capit al account has been increased/decreased by the profit/loss decreased by the owner’s drawings 36 12 Post Closing Trial Balance †¢ Reflects all accounts with balances after the closing process – Assets – Liabilities – Owner’s capital 37 13

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Compare And Contrast The Physicochemical Events Essays

Compare And Contrast The Physicochemical Events Essays Compare And Contrast The Physicochemical Events Essay Compare And Contrast The Physicochemical Events Essay Butter is a soft, yellow-hued, comestible emulsion of butterfat, H2O, air, and sometimes salt. It is made from the churning of pick and is used as a spread every bit good as an of import ingredient in cookery and baking. Margarine is a inexpensive option to butter, made from oil or a combination of oils through the procedure of hydrogenation. Chemical Differences Margarine is made mostly from vegetable oils that have been hydrogenated or crystallised for the proper spreading texture. Like butter, table oleo must incorporate no less than 80 % fat. Since oils are of course about 100 % fat, H2O is added to bring forth the coveted water-in-oil emulsion, which is physically rather the same as in butter. To the oil and H2O stages are added emulsifiers, salt, butter spirit, coloring material and allowable chemical preservatives such as Na benzoate. Vitamins A and D may besides be added. Whereas butter may incorporate merely butterfat, most oleo contains merely vegetable fats. Churned butter is composed about wholly of saturated fat, along with a important sum of natural cholesterin. Whilst in oleo the usually liquid vegetable oil is solidified through a procedure affecting H gas bubbles go throughing through the mixture. The consequence is a solid butter replacement with no cholesterin and small if any concentrated fat. Margarine does incorporate po lyunsaturated and Trans fatty acids, nevertheless. Physical Differences: Both Butter and Margarine fats are mixtures of triacylglycerols. Butter has a â€Å"much greater assortment of fatty acids ( ca 40 ) than are found in vegetable oils ( 5 10 ) from which oleos is produced† ( Geoff, 1999 ) . But in both butter and margarine the fats present are mix of solid and liquids fats. With this and the crystal morphology gives the butter and margarine its specific belongingss. The construction of the butter and oleo molecule is based on â€Å"a web of solid fat crystals in liquid fat† ( Geoff, 1999 ) .this histories for assorted of import features such as Emulsion stableness, microbiological stableness, hardness/softness, consistence. The construction may be illustrated in the undermentioned diagram. ( Fig 1 ) â€Å"The emulsion is stabilised by the solid crystal web which holds the H2O droplets in topographic point forestalling them from migrating and coalescing† ( Geoff, 1999 ) . The microbiological stableness is besides explained as the H2O droplets are smaller than most common nutrient poisoning bacteriums, which means that they have small opportunities for growing. â€Å"The consistence of oleo is of great importance in the success of the merchandise. It must run in the oral cavity as butter does, since residue leaves a pastelike sensation† ( Meyer, 1960 ) . Margarine is decidedly a replacement for butter and, in the oculus of the consumer must hold the same belongingss similar to in order to be acceptable. Margarine must be rather fictile at room temperature so that it spreads readily and be reasonably difficult at â€Å"40?F to 45?F icebox temperature as butter is. In the temperature scope from 45?F to 60?F butter is excessively difficult to distribute easily† ( Meyer, 1960 ) , and much oleo is now produced which is superior to butter in its malleability in this scope. The consistence of oleo is the consequence of the fats used in its readying, the extent of hydrogenation, and the class of the reactions during hydrogenation. Normally oleos are produced by carefully commanding the hydrogenation of the entire organic structure of fat instead than by intermixing. The consistence of butter both indirectly and straight is one of the most of import feature in its production ; this is due to the fact that it has a major consequence on its other features such as the consumer wants -taste and olfactory property. This construct of consistence is of a complicated 1 with belongingss such as dispersed ability, malleability, viscousness and hardness. Crystallization is the procedure that occurs after the pick is subjected to a chilling procedure. The sum of this crystallization of the fat globules determines the end points butter has the right consistence PHYSIOCHEMICAL Events: In buttermaking, the pick that is collected for the butter production should be â€Å"sweet and non rancid† ( Alfa A ; Tetra, 2010 ) and non oxidised. This goes through a centrifuge in which the pick is cooled and goes into a storage armored combat vehicle. The centrifuge separates the pick in to plane milk and pick. Skim milk is so pasteurised and so goes into storage for drying or concentrating. The pick nevertheless, is pasteurised at 95?C besides to kill any harmful micro-organisms and enzymes that may hold an inauspicious consequence on the butter quality. With civilized butter, â€Å"mixed civilizations of S. cremoris, S. lactis diacetyl lactis, Leuconostocs, are used and the pick is ripened to pH 5.5 at 21oC and so pH 4.6 at 13oC† ( Alfa A ; Tetra, 2010 ) . The acerb production is comparative to the development of spirits so the colder the temp the tastier the butter. The aging armored combat vehicle is the topographic point where the pick is subjected to a pro cedure of controlled chilling which is designed to give the fat a needed crystalline construction. This plan of chilling can be modified to obtain butter which is of a low I value i.e. the unsaturated proportion of fat is low, but good consisitency.Then after aging the pick in the ripening armored combat vehicle for â€Å"12- 15 hours it is pumped into the churn† ( Norman A ; Joseph, 1995 ) . In the churning procedure the pick is violently agitated to interrupt down the fat globules, doing the fat to clot into butter grains due to the breakage of the membrane like surface known as lecithin and causes them to clash. As a consequence the globules clump together and organize little butter granules ; these turn in size and separate from the H2O stage of the pick. The resulting H2O stage is known as buttermilk therefore the pick is split into two fractions: butter grains and buttermilk. After run outing, the butter is worked to a uninterrupted fat stage incorporating a finely spread H2O stage. It used to be common pattern to rinse the butter after churning to take any residuary buttermilk and milk solids but this is seldom done today. Salt is added to better shelf life and the gustatory sensation, acts as a preservative. After salting the butter needs to be work smartly to even out the distribution. The gustatory sensation, quality, olfactory property and other of import featu res are all influenced by this working. Working is carried out to obtain a homogeneous mixture of butter granules, H2O and salt. This is the period when the fat transforms from ball-shaped to free fat. The size of the H2O droplets are decreased whilst working and are non supposed to be seeable in decently worked butter. Over-working of the butter consequences into oily or brickle butter. This is due to the fat being excessively hard or soft.â€Å"A soft milk fat will do a soft and oily butter, whereas butter from difficult milk fat will be difficult and stiff. If, nevertheless, the heat intervention is modified to accommodate the iodine value of the fat, the consistence of the butter can be optimized. For the heat intervention regulates the size of the fat crystals, and the comparative sums of solid fat and the uninterrupted stage the factors that determine the consistence of the butter† ( Alfa A ; Tetra, 2010 ) Some H2O may be added to standardise the wet content. Precise control of composing is indispensable for maximal output. The finished butter is discharged into the packaging unit, and from at that place to cold storage. Margarine industry is carried out in two distinguishable phases. The first phase is called polish where oil is extracted from seed or beans and refined.The 2nd phase is called processing where oil and other stuffs are made into oleo. It starts off by fixing the natural fats and oils are carefully extracted, base refined, deodirised, and so hydrogenated to the coveted consistence. The fat is so emulsified with aged milk. In the United States skim milk is normally used. It is pasteurised to destruct bacteriums and so inoculated with a strain of choice bacteriums that can bring forth compounds with desirable spirits in the milk and in the emulsion. These are the same strains of micro-organisms that are used in the production of butter. The inoculated milk is held for 12- 24 hours to allow the growing of the beings. The aged milk is run into the liquid fat and stirred smartly. Emulsifying agents are frequently added at this point. Emulsifying agents brace the oleo and prevent escape, the separation of fluid during storage. They besides prevent the rapid separation of fat and H2O when the oleo is melted, splattering, and the sticking of milk solids to the underside of the pan. In butter natural emulsifying agents are present that hold the H2O in the emulsion and when the butter is heated, â€Å"allow steam to get away by frothing instead than by spattering† ( Norman A ; Joseph, 1995 ) . Lecithin s peculiarly those from soya beans, are widely used as emulsifying agents in oleos. A figure of man-made merchandises are besides used. The glandular fever and diglycerides used in the formation of super glycerinated shortenings help brace the emulsion and prevent leaking, but do little to forestall splatter. The Na sulfoacetate derived function of glandular fever and diglycerides are effectual in understating splatter and are added to many oleos for this intent. The fat-milk emulsion is cooled and the plastic, solid mass held for some clip to let bacterial action and the development of spirit. Salt is so added to â€Å"extend to 2.5 to 3 per centum of the entire weight† ( Meyer, 1960 ) . Since the slat dissolves in the aqueous stage, the salt content of these bantam beads is much higher. It is so high that the activity and the growing of the bacteriums are stopped. The oleo is worked or kneaded during the operation of salting and the crystals are reduced so that no coarseness occurs. â€Å"Most oleo produced for the market is fortified with vitamin A or provitamin A, the provitamin As, to the extent of 1500 units per pound† ( Norman and Joseph, 1995 ) . A xanthous dye is added to much of the oleo sold in this state since it has become legal to make this without the payment of high revenue enhancement. Sodium benzoate is on occasion added as a preservative. In decision, although butter and oleo may look to be of the same household and thought to be of the same chemical belongingss since they look and taste like the other ; they are non. They do get down off with constituents that are in the same province ; cow s milk ( liquid ) and vegetable oil ( liquid ) . They besides have the same starting motor civilizations added to them. This is done so that oleo has the same gustatory sensation and olfactory property of butter ; since oleo serves as a replacement of butter. That s where the similarities end as the physiochemical procedures are really different from each other. The biggest differences between these two fat merchandises would be that butter is made of milk fat and oleo is made of vegetable oils. The other large differences in their physiochemical events are that of consistence. Butters consistence is determined by the sum of crystallization ( before churning ) of the fat globules whilst oleos consistence is determined by the sum o f hydrogenation applied to the unsaturated oil to indurate it adequate to do into solid signifier in presence of a accelerator normally nickel.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Impacted Slavery

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Impacted Slavery The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was a very early federal law passed by Congress in the era of the Articles of Confederation. Its main purpose was to create a legal structure for the settlement of land in five present day states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin. In addition, a major provision of the law prohibited slavery north of the Ohio River. Key Takeaways: Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Ratified by Congress July 13, 1787.Prohibited slavery in territories north of the Ohio River. It was the first federal law to address the issue.Created a three-step process for new territories to become states, which established important precedents for the incorporation of new states through the 19th and 20th centuries. Significance of the Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance, ratified by Congress on July 13, 1787, was the first law to create a structure by which new territories could follow a three-step legal path to become a state equal to the original 13 states, and was the first substantial action by Congress to deal with the issue of slavery. In addition, the law contained a version of a Bill of Rights, which set out individual rights in the new territories. The Bill of Rights, which was later added to the U.S. Constitution, contained some of those same rights. The Northwest Ordinance was written, debated, and passed in New York City during the same summer that the U.S. Constitution was being debated at a convention in Philadelphia. Decades later, Abraham Lincoln prominently cited the law in an important anti-slavery speech in February 1860, which made him a credible presidential contender. As Lincoln noted, the law was proof that some of the nations founders accepted that the federal government could play a role in regulating slavery. Necessity of the Northwest Ordinance When the United States emerged as an independent nation, it immediately faced a crisis about how to handle the large tracts of lands to the west of the 13 states. This area, known as the Old Northwest, came into American possession at the end of the Revolutionary War. Some states claimed ownership of western lands. Other states which asserted no such claim argued that the western land rightfully belonged to the federal government, and should be sold to private land developers. States gave up their western claims, and a law passed by Congress, the Land Ordinance of 1785, established an orderly system of surveying and selling western lands. That system created orderly grids of townships designed to avoid the chaotic land grabs which had occurred in the territory of Kentucky. (That system of surveying is still evident today; airplane passengers can clearly see the orderly fields laid out in Midwestern states such as Indiana or Illinois.) The problem with western lands was not entirely solved, however. Squatters who refused to wait for an orderly settlement began to enter western lands, and were chased off at times by federal troops. Wealthy land speculators, who wielded influence with Congress, sought a stronger law. Other factors, especially anti-slavery sentiment in the northern states, also came into play. Key Players As Congress struggled to deal with the problem of land settlement, it was approached by Manasseh Cutler, a scholarly resident of Connecticut who had become a partner in a land company, the Ohio Company of Associates. Cutler suggested some of the provisions which became part of the Northwest Ordinance, in particular the prohibition of slavery north of the Ohio River. The official author of the Northwest Ordinance is generally considered to be Rufus King, a member of Congress from Massachusetts as well as a member of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787. An influential member of Congress from Virginia, Richard Henry Lee, agreed with the Northwest Ordinance because he felt it protected property rights (meaning it didnt interfere with slavery in the South). Path to Statehood In practice, the Northwest Ordinance created a three-step process for a territory to become a state of the Union. The first step was that the president would appoint a governor, a secretary, and three judges to administer the territory. In the second step, when the territory reached a population of 5,000 free white adult males, it could elect a legislature. In the third step, when the territory reached a population of 60,000 free white residents, it could write a state constitution and, with congressional approval, it could become a state. The provisions in the Northwest Ordinance created important precedents by which other territories would become states in the 19th and 20th centuries. Lincoln's Invocation of the Northwest Ordinance In February 1860, Abraham Lincoln, who was not widely known in the East, traveled to New York City and spoke at Cooper Union. In his speech he argued that the federal government had a role to play in regulating slavery, and had, indeed, always played such a role. Lincoln noted that of the 39 men who gathered to vote on the Constitution in the summer of 1787, four also served in Congress. Of those four, three voted in favor of the Northwest Ordinance, which, of course, contained the section prohibiting slavery north of the Ohio River. He further noted that in 1789, during the first Congress to assemble following the ratification of the Constitution, a law was passed to enforce the provisions of the ordinance, including the prohibition of slavery in the territory. That law passed through Congress without objection, and was signed into law by President George Washington. Lincolns reliance on the Northwest Ordinance was significant. At the time, there were fierce debates over slavery splitting the nation. And pro-slavery politicians often claimed that the federal government should have no role in regulating slavery. Yet Lincoln had deftly demonstrated that some of the same people who had written the Constitution, including even the nations first president, clearly saw a role for the federal government in regulating slavery. Sources: Northwest Ordinance. Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History, edited by Thomas Carson and Mary Bonk, Gale, 1999. Research in Context.Congress, U.S. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787. The Constitution and Supreme Court, Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Research in Context.LEVY, LEONARD W. Northwest Ordinance (1787). Encyclopedia of the American Constitution, edited by Leonard W. Levy and Kenneth L. Karst, 2nd ed., vol. 4, Macmillan Reference USA, 2000, p. 1829. Gale Virtual Reference Library.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

The Problem of Leadership in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Essay

The Problem of Leadership in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil - Essay Example 2. Cuba The Cuban tale of independence was preceded by two more important events namely the independence of Haiti in 1791 and the call for independence from Spain in the 1820’s. The Haitian revolution had proven beyond doubt that people from various racial and ethnic backgrounds could operate together to subdue not one but three colonial powers to claim their independence. The Cuban revolution and its constituents resembled the Haitian insurgents in racial composition as the call to arms was taken up by blacks, mulattos and whites alike. Previously the Cuban domain had remained faithful to Spain even though other nations were claiming their independence. Cuba was given the motto â€Å"The Always Most Faithful Island† by the Spanish Crown although small plans for insurgency had been unearthed throughout the 1830’s and 1840’s. The loyalty towards the Spanish Crown stemmed from dependence on Spain for trade as well as protection from pirates and unease at the rising power of the United States. The actual insurgency was initiated by Carlos Manuel De Cespedes who was a sugar plantation owner. Carlos freed his slaves and declared that any slaves who were presented for military service would be freed. The conflict emerged in 1868 and became known as the Ten Years War with the emergence of a new government supported by blacks, mulattos and white men. Throughout the struggle race was nearly dismantled as a classification as white men served under blacks and blacks and mulattos rose to prominence as colonels, generals and the like. The newly formed government was not recognised by the United States though other European and Latin American governments recognised it. The war ended in 1878 with the Pact of Zanjon as Spain promised greater autonomy to Cuba. In the following year another insurgency was initiated by a Cuban patriot better known as Calixto Garcia. This effort was labelled as the Little War but it received little support. Slavery was abolished generally in Cuba following these events and abolition was completed in the 1880’s. The next conflict in Cuba emerged in 1895 with forces led by Jose Marti who was finally killed in the battle of Dos Rios on May 19, 1895. The large Spanish army outnumbered the insurgents as local people were forced into concentration camps by the military governor of Cuba. The final end of the war in 1898 placed leadership in the hands of the influential whites and some mulattos. Following independence Cuba saw social and political corruption along with short regimes that boomed and waned in rapid succession till the socialist revolution. 3. Mexico Mexico was ruled by a republican general Porfirio Diaz who took over Mexico during the French intervention. Porfirio was in charge of the country from 1876 to 1880 and then from 1884 to 1911 through five consecutive reelections and the period became known better as Porfirio. This era was characterized by large progress in economics as wel l as the arts and sciences though economic disparity was on the rise along with political repression. Election fraud associated with Diaz’s fifth election instigated the Mexican Revolution of 1910 which was led by Francisco I. Madero forcing Diaz to resign in 1911. However Francisco was overthrown only two years later in a coup by the conservative general Victoriano Huerta which put the nation into another civil war